Table 1

Comparison of TXA administration protocols between the IDF and civilian EMS in Israel (from Nadler et al18)

Relation to mechanismPenetrating*Non-compressible haemorrhage
Evacuation time>15 min
AgeAll ages>18 years
Markers of shock/need for massive transfusionSBP <90 or HR >100At least 2 signs:
  1. SBP <90

  2. HR >110

  3. Pallor/sweating

  4. Slow capillary refill time

  5. Deterioration of consciousness

  • According to the IDF protocol, TXA should be administered automatically, regardless of signs of shock, to all casualties with penetrating injury to the torso and junctional areas.

  • EMS, emergency medical service; HR, heart rate; IDF, Israel Defence Forces; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TXA, tranexamic acid.