Table 1

Domains and variables collected

Domain Variable(s)
Characteristics of the deceased individualSex, age, race/ethnicity and residence location
Characteristics of the trauma locationSole vs. multiple injury and whether weapon used in trauma
Number of other persons involved, time of day, day of week and road conditions (for motor vehicle deaths)
Distance to downtown Houston (proxy variable for centrality)
Distance to nearest alcohol-serving establishment and if in known alcohol establishment centre
If in known drug-dealing hot spot
Demographic characteristics of the deceased residence locationPopulation, employment, median household income and ethnic distribution by major race/ethnic categories
Percentage of population in different age groups, of poverty households, of foreign-born population and of population living abroad 5 years earlier
Number of rental units and median building size
Prehospital careDistance to the nearest emergency treatment center (includes level of trauma or non-trauma center, free standing clinic, urgent care, or primary care provider) treatment center associated with EMS
Mode of transport to the treatment center (see above)
Physiological findings on arrival to scene, life-saving interventions, and timespan (found time, dispatch time, arrival and departure of EMS on and off scene, and time of hospital arrival)
Weapon type if known
Dispatch times
Transferring hospitalisation and hospitalPhysiological findings on arrival to hospital (eg, vital signs, GCS, Hgb, pH, and base excess)
Life-saving interventions and timespan (arrival to transfer-accepting hospital time, discharge time and/or time of death)
Placement of DNR and comfort care only
Hospital type (trauma level, non-trauma and urgent care)
Comorbid conditionsPre-existing medical, surgical, and psychiatric conditions, including history of remote trauma
ComplicationsIncludes renal failure, sepsis, pneumonia, surgical site infection, urinary tract infection, acute respiratory distress syndrome, massive pulmonary embolus, deep vein thrombosis, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular accident, multiorgan failure, and coagulopathy
System issuesDelay in seeking care
Frequent falls with no prevention provided
Readmission within 30 days
Delay in care/treatment and triage decisions
Autopsy and injury scoringAnatomical injuries and mechanism of injury
Cause and manner of death
Presence of alcohol, illicit, or prescription medications
Injury severity score and new injury severity score
New technologyIdentification of new technology based on anatomic findings required to improve outcome
Mechanism of injuryInformation regarding motor vehicle impact site, interpersonal violence, failure to stop and render aid, rear-impact collision, and trauma type (blunt, sharp, firearm, thermal, strangulation, asphyxia, electrocution, and other)
PreventabilityPreventable, potentially preventable, and non-preventable
Geospatial analysisScene (trauma location), home addresses of decedents and zip code
Census Bureau’s 2011 to 2015 5-year American Community Survey data
Hospital and prehospital locations
Crime patterns
  • DNR, Do Not Resuscitate; EMS, Emergency Medical Service; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; Hgb, hemoglobin