Table 5

Described signs on CT to identify diaphragm injury

CollarConstriction of the viscera within the diaphragmatic defect (ie, collar too tight).
Dependent visceraViscera seen dependent on thoracic wall after herniating through the defect.
Contiguous injuryInjury tract visible on both sides of the diaphragm.
Diaphragm thickeningThickening due to diaphragm retraction.
Curled diaphragmIrregular diaphragm thickening.
HumpHump shape of the liver herniated through right-sided injury (similar to collar sign on the left).
BandLinear area of hypoattenuation through herniated liver.
Discontinuous diaphragmFocal defect in the diaphragm.
Dangling diaphragmFree edge of the diaphragm curls inward toward the center of the body.
Visceral herniationHerniation of organs into the thoracic cavity.