Table 3

Timing of when to initiate extracorporeal membranous oxygenation.

All respondentsECMO directors (n=8)Trauma surgeons (n=131)Surgical intensivist (n=42)Critical care fellows (n=8)
Timing of ECMO initiation
Failure to improve after maximizing conventional ventilation13.1%25.0%12.2%7.1%37.5%
Failure to improve after APRV/bilevel23.1%0.0%23.7%33.3%0.0%
Failure to improve after addition of prone, NO, Epo, steroids and/or surfactant16.6%25.0%16.0%16.7%25.0%
Hypoxic respiratory failure worsening but prior to maximal therapy being reached28.6%50.0%26.7%28.6%12.5%
I never consider ECMO10.6%0.0%12.2%11.9%0.0%
I do not know8.0%0.0%9.2%2.4%25.0%
  • APRV, airway pressure release ventilation;ECMO, extracorporeal membranous oxygenation; Epo, epoprostenol; HFOV, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; NO, inhaled nitric oxide; bilevel, bilevel ventilation; paralysis, pharmacological paralysis; prone, prone positioning; steroids, corticosteroids.