Table 1

Trauma center, patient and injury characteristics, and TT details by antibiotics status

No antibiotics*Antibiotics*P value†
Age45(27, 59.5)34(24, 54)<0.01
Mechanism of injury
GCS on arrival
 Mild (13-15)1157(71.6)210(77.2)0.12
 Moderate (9-12)78(4.8)8(2.9)
 Severe (≤8)380(23.5)54(19.9)
Indication for TT placement
TT provider
TT location
 Emergency Department /trauma bay1184 (73.3)198 (72.8)<0.01
 Operating room113(7)41(15.1)
Trauma center designation
 American College of Surgeons verified trauma center458(28.4)53(19.5)0.01
Trauma center level
Trauma center population
Trauma admissions per year
  • *Median (IQR) for continuous variables and count (percentage) for categorical variables.

  • †Fisher’s exact test or χ2 test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables; the unknown category, if present, is excluded from the testing procedure.

  • GCS, Glasgow Coma Score; HPTX, hemopneumothorax; ICU, intensive care unit; ISS, Injury Severity Score; TT, tube thoracostomy.