Table 1

Outcomes for implementation science

Implementation outcomes
AcceptabilityThe perception among implementation stakeholders that a given treatment, service, practice, or innovation is agreeable, palatable, or satisfactory
Synonyms: Satisfaction with various aspects of the innovation (eg, content, complexity, comfort, delivery, and credibility)
AdoptionThe intention, initial decision, or action to try or employ an innovation or evidence-based practice
Synonyms: Uptake; utilization; initial implementation; intention to try
AppropriatenessThe perceived fit, relevance, or compatibility of the innovation or evidence-based practice for a given practice setting, provider, or consumer; and/or perceived fit of the innovation to address a particular issue or problem. “Appropriateness” is conceptually similar to “acceptability,” and the literature reflects overlapping and sometimes inconsistent terms when discussing these constructs
Synonyms: Perceived fit; relevance; compatibility; suitability; usefulness; practicability
Implementation costsCost impact of an implementation effort, dependent on three components: variation in complexity of treatments, variation for complexity of implementation strategy, variation by setting and overhead
Synonyms: Marginal cost; cost-effectiveness; cost–benefit
FeasibilityThe extent to which a new treatment, or an innovation, can be successfully used or carried out within a given agency or setting. Actual fit or utility; suitability for everyday use; practicability
FidelityThe degree to which an intervention was implemented as it was prescribed in the original protocol or as it was intended by the programme developers
Synonyms: Delivered as intended; adherence; integrity; quality of program delivery
PenetrationIntegration of a practice within a service setting and its subsystems
Synonyms: Level of institutionalization; spread; service access
SustainabilityThe extent to which a newly implemented treatment is maintained or institutionalized within a service setting’s ongoing stable operations
Synonyms: Maintenance; continuation; durability; incorporation; integration; institutionalization; sustained use; routinization
  • Adapted from Proctor et al.