Table 1

Study population characteristics

First authorYearStudy designSample sizeGender (%male)Age (mean)PopulationCriteria for inclusion
Akahoshi222016Retrospective845647.2JapaneseAge >20; not DOA; blunt force trauma
Chang212018Retrospective912681.1AmericanAge >50; proximal femur fracture undergoing surgical repair
Couch322018Retrospective2255576.9AustralianAge >65; Injury Severity Score (ISS) >12
DeAndrade332018Retrospective7787163 and 42AmericanPresented as a trauma alert at a single institution from 2012 to 2014
Deren252017Retrospective996274.3AmericanAge ≥60; Rhode Island Hospital Trauma Database; closed acetabular fracture
Ebbeling232014Retrospective1805774AmericanAge >55 years; ISS>15; and ICU LOS>48 hours; captured in Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study (PTOS)
Fairchild192015Retrospective2524976AmericanAge >65; no TBI/SCI; admitted to level 1 trauma center in Milwaukee, WI, between January 2008 and April 2011
Hida172016Retrospective; cross-sectional216 (OVF); 1608 (NF)079.9 (OVF); 69.1 (NF)JapaneseWomen ≥55 admitted to single hospital with osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF); (NF) consecutive female outpatients who underwent DXA during study period (June 2002 to January 2009)
Hu342018Retrospective1087367.4AmericanAge ≥55; all patients admitted to the trauma service of a single university hospital (level 1 trauma center); TBI
Kaplan182017Retrospective Cohort45060Stratified by age, not specifiedAmericanAge ≥65 years; admitted to the ICU of a single institution from January 2011 to May 2014 after traumatic injury
Leeper62016Retrospective23 62261.70Stratified by age, not specifiedAmericanAge ≥18 or older; level 1 or level 2 trauma alert; availability of at least 6 months of follow-up data
Lisiecki352013Retrospective167547.1AmericanAge between 18 and 99 years old; mandible fracture; treated in initial hospital stay; GCS score of 14–15
Malekpour262017Retrospective11755178.17AmericanAge >65; blunt trauma; abdominal CT
Mccusker362018Retrospective3256476AmericanAge ≥65 years; trauma patients admitted to level 1 trauma center
Mitchell372018Retrospective1467370.1AmericanAge >60 with acetabular fractures treated at institution during a 12-year period
Oskutis382016Retrospective2024158.5AmericanAge >40; postcrash admission to a trauma center; single injury or Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) score ≥3
Shibahashi242017Retrospective747274JapaneseAge ≥60 years; TBI; admitted to the intensive care unit between September 2013 and September 2015
Touban202019Retrospective5584676.65AmericanAge >65 years; evaluation with abdominal and/or pelvic CT; orthopedic injury
  • DOA, Dead On Arrival; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of stay; NF, Non-fracture; SCI, Spinal Cord Injury; TBI, traumatic brain injury.