Table 1

Characteristics of the directly admitted adult population (MTCs only) by mode of arrival: January 2012–March 2017

Mode of arrivalUnknown final outcome
GEMSHEMSTotal
Total54 185754861 7335748
Male, n (%)31 487 (58.1)5619 (74.4)37 106 (60.1)3891 (67.7)
Age, median (IQR)61.9 (40.7–80.9)45.5 (29–60.3)59.3 (38.5–79.4)53 (34.5–71.6)
Prehospital GCS, median (IQR)*15 (14–15)15 (10–15)15 (14–15)15 (11–15)
Prehospital SBP, median (IQR)*137 (120–155)129 (110–146)136 (119–154)132 (114–152)
ISS10 (9–20)20 (10–29)10 (9–21)21 (10–29)
Prehospital O2sat, median (IQR)*97 (95–99)98 (95–100)97 (95–99)97 (95–99)
Prehospital pulse rate, median (IQR)*84 (72–98)88 (72–104)84 (72–99)86 (73–102)
Prehospital resp rate, median (IQR)*18 (16–20)20 (16–24)18 (16–22)18 (16–22)
Time from leaving scene to arrival to hospital (mins), median (IQR)24 (17–34)22 (16–30)24 (17–34)25 (17–36)
Penetrating injury, n (%)2459 (4.5)363 (4.8)2822 (4.6)162 (2.8)
MOI, n (%)
 Vehicle incident/collision13 584 (25.1)4560 (60.4)18 144 (29.4)2494 (43.4)
 Fall from heights8527 (15.7)1387 (18.4)9914 (16.1)1368 (23.8)
 Low fall26 303 (48.5)644 (8.5)26 947 (43.7)1286 (22.4)
 Stabbing/shooting2195 (4.1)294 (3.9)2489 (4)130 (2.3)
 Other3576 (6.6)663 (8.8)4239 (6.9)470 (8.2)
Prehospital intubation, n (%)1106 (2)2115 (28)3221 (5.2)744 (12.9)
LOS in days, median (IQR)10 (5–19)10 (5–20)10 (5–19)12 (4–24)
Neuro center on site, n (%)†49 153 (90.7)7357 (97.5)56 510 (91.5)4528 (78.8)
Head injury AIS 3+, n (%)14 481 (26.7)2703 (35.8)17 184 (27.8)2487 (43.3)
Attendance at scene, n (%)
 Consultant0 (0)476 (6.3)476 (0.8)115 (2)
 Doctor0 (0)3438 (45.5)3438 (5.6)749 (13)
 Paramedic only48 962 (90.4)2834 (37.5)51 796 (83.9)4232 (73.6)
 Mortality4559 (8.4)1181 (15.6)5740 (9.3)N/A
  • *Prehospital characteristics are taken from the earliest recorded data.

  • †Neurosurgery/neurological care facility.

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GEMS, ground emergency medical services; HEMS, helicopter emergency medical services; ISS, Injury Severity Score; LOS, length of stay; MOI, mechanism of injury; MTCs, major trauma centers; O2sat, oxygen saturation; SBP, systolic blood pressure.