Table 3

Characteristics of the propensity score matched directly admitted adult population (MTCs only) by mode of arrival: January 2012–March 2017

TotalMode of arrival
GEMSHEMSTotalP value
463646369272
Male, n (%)3442 (74.3)3350 (72.3)6792 (73.37)0.031
Age, median (IQR)47.2 (30–62.8)46.8 (30.7–62.7)47.2 (29.6–62.8)0.516
Prehospital GCS, median (IQR)15 (14–15)15 (15–15)15 (14–15)0.999
Prehospital SBP, median (IQR)130 (115–147)130 (113–148)130 (114–147)0.999
ISS16 (9–25)17 (9–26)16 (9–25)0.0001
Prehospital O2sat, median (IQR)97 (95–99)98 (96–100)97 (95–99)0.0001
Prehospital pulse rate, median (IQR)86 (73–101)85 (72–100)85 (72–100)0.004
Prehospital resp rate, median (IQR)18 (16–22)19 (16–24)18 (16–23)0.073
Time to arrival to hospital (min), median (IQR)23 (15–33)23 (16–31)25 (15–33)0.999
Penetrating injury, n (%)273 (5.9)261 (5.6)534 (5.8)0.593
MOI, n (%)
 Vehicle incident/collision2396 (51.7)2410 (52.0)4806 (51.8)0.006
 Fall from heights1034 (22.3)963 (20.8)1997 (21.5)
 Low fall487 (10.5)592 (12.8)1079 (11.6)
 Stabbing/shooting244 (5.3)226 (4.9)470 (5.1)
 Other475 (10.3)445 (9.6)920 (9.9)
Prehospital intubation, n (%)232 (5.0)1043 (22.5)1275 (13.8)<0.0001
LOS in days, median (IQR)9 (5–18)9 (5–18)9 (5–18)0.999
Neuro center on site, n (%)4471 (96.4)4475 (96.5)8946 (96.5)0.822
Head injury AIS 3+, n (%)1465 (31.6)1452 (31.3)2917 (31.5)0.771
Attendance at scene, n (%)
 Consultant, n (%)0282 (6.1)22 (3.0)<0.0001
 Doctor, n (%)02068 (44.6)2068 (22.3)
 Paramedic only, n (%)4104 (88.5)1813 (39.1)5917 (63.8)
Mortality, n (%)448 (9.7)619 (13.4)1067 (11.5)<0.0001
  • GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GEMS, ground emergency medical services; HEMS, helicopter emergency medical services; ISS, Injury Severity Score; MOI, mechanism of injury; MTCs, major trauma centers; SBP, systolic blood pressure.