Table 3

Outcomes in β-blocker unexposed (BB−) and β-blocker exposed (BB+) patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture

BB−BB+P value
Hospital length of stay (days)<0.001
 Mean (SD)8.5 (5.8)9.8 (6.5)
 Median (IQR)7 (5, 11)9 (5, 12)
30-day mortality, n (%)119 (7.7)82 (9.1)0.22
90-day mortality, n (%)209 (13.5)145 (16.1)0.08
Adjusted IRR*
 30-day mortality, IRR (95% CI)Ref0.79 (0.60 to 1.03)0.07
 90-day mortality, IRR (95% CI)Ref0.82 (0.68 to 0.98)0.03
  • *Poisson regression model with robust standard errors, multiple imputation was used for missing values. Model adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, fracture type and type of surgery. Multiple imputation method for missing ASA values.

  • CI, Confidence interval; IQR, Interquartile range; IRR, incidence rate ratio; SD, Standard deviation.