Table 1

Patient characteristics according to the date of hospital admission

CharacteristicAll patients
(n=125)
Before cohort
(n=59)*
After cohort
(n=66)†
P value
Age (years)54.0 (35.0–70.0)51.0 (35.0–68.0)57.0 (39.3–74.0)0.50
Male sex (%)84 (66.1)41 (69.5)43 (65.2)0.61
Mechanism of injury (%)0.21
 Motor vehicle crash59 (47.2)26 (44.1)33 (50.0)
 Fall from a height47 (37.6)20 (33.9)27 (40.9)
 Stabbing14 (11.2)9 (15.3)5 (7.6)
 Compression5 (4.0)4 (6.8)1 (1.5)
Vital signs at admission
 GCS total score11.0 (5.5–14.0)14.0 (6.0–15.0)10.0 (5.5–14.0)0.49
 GCS <9 (%)56 (44.8)25 (42.4)31 (47.0)0.61
 RR (cycles/min)24.0 (18.0–30.0)26.0 (20.0–32.0)24.0 (18.0–30.0)0.15
 SBP (mm Hg)70.0 (54.0–87.0)70.0 (54.0–80.0)72.0 (55.0–90.0)0.38
 Lowest SBP before PH (mm Hg)50.0 (0–60.0)64.0 (40.0–70.0)48.5 (0.0–60.0)0.003
 BT (°C)36.0 (35.5–36.7)36.0 (35.5–36.5)36.0 (35.4–36.8)0.26
 Pulse rate (beats/min)110.0 (90.0–130.8)118.0 (90.0–135.0)107.0 (90.0–127.5)0.25
Laboratory evaluations at admission
 pH7.3 (7.1–7.4)7.3 (7.1–7.3)7.3 (7.1–7.4)0.49
 Base excess (mmol/L)−10.7 (−18.0, −5.2)−11.4 (−18.1, −5.9)−9.7 (−17.8, −4.5)0.48
 Lactate (mg/dL)65.0 (36.0–100.0)66.0 (39.8–101.3)65.0 (35.5–99.0)0.32
 D-dimer (μg/mL)43.1 (16.8–99.9)27.0 (11.7–60.2)63.1 (28.8–111.8)0.21
 PT-INR1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.1 (1.0–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.4)0.01
Trauma score
 RTS5.6 (3.5–6.6)5.6 (4.1–6.4)5.6 (3.0–6.8)0.77
 ISS43.0 (32.0–57.0)34.0 (27.0–50.0)50.0 (39.3–66.0)<0.001
 TRISS-PS (%)34.8 (5.0–74.7)53.2 (12.9–83.5)23.0 (1.7–64.2)0.005
  • *Admitted between January 2011 and September 2014.

  • †Admitted between October 2014 and January 2019.

  • BT, body temperature; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ISS, Injury Severity Score; PH, primary hemostasis; PT-INR, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio; RR, respiratory rate; RTS, Revised Trauma Score; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TRISS-PS, probability of survival calculated by the Trauma and Injury Severity Score.