Table 1

Demographics, mental health and substance use, clinical characteristics and emergency department (ED) visit utilization among trauma patients with elevated risk for mental health and substance use comorbidity (n=169)

Characteristicn (%)/m (SD)
 Age42.1 (15.9)
 Female96 (56.8)
  White94 (55.6)
  African-American27 (16.0)
  Native American22 (13.0)
  Asian/Pacific Islander14 (8.3)
  Hispanic12 (7.1)
 Homeless at baseline14 (8.3)
 Public insurance163 (96.4)
Mental health and substance use
 PCL-C score ≥35 (risk for PTSD)127 (75.1)
 PHQ-9 ≥10 (current moderate depression)155 (91.7)
 PHQ-9 item 9 score ≥1 (current suicidality)41 (24.3)
 AUDIT-C score positive (current alcohol use disorder)83 (49.1)
 History of alcohol use23 (13.6)
 History of major psychiatric illness54 (32.0)
Clinical characteristics
 Injury Severity Score15.1 (11.3)
 ICU admit96 (56.8)
Emergency department utilization
 Self-report ED visits in past year1.3 (2.4)
 EDIE ED visits in past year1.5 (2.5)
 EDIE distinct hospitals visited in past year0.69 (0.97)
 Self-report ED visits match EDIE93 (55.0)
 Self-report is less than EDIE (under-reporting)36 (21.3)
 Self-report is more than EDIE (over-reporting)40 (23.6)
  • AUDIT-C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption; ED, emergency department; EDIE, Emergency Department Information Exchange; ICU, intensive care unit; PCL-C, PTSD CheckList-Civilian version; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire 9; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.