Table 2

Clinical characteristics of survivors

Patient numberAge (range)MOIAdmission GCS score (motor), ISSTime to ROSC, type of arrestPupil reactivityBrain injuriesFollow-up
(6 months–1 year)
Modified Rankin score, GOS-E score
120sMotorcycle crash6, 45Unknown, PEABilateral reactivityMulticompartmental intracranial hemorrhage.
Epidural hematoma.
Effacement of suprasellar cisterns.
Able to walk.
Neurologically intact.
2, 8
220sMotor vehicle collision3, 22Unknown, unknownNon-reactive, constrictedLeft SAH with bifrontal contusions.
Cerebral edema.
Able to walk.
Able to carry out ADLs.
2, 7
310sPedestrian struck3, 33Unknown,
Bilateral reactivityDiffuse SAH.
Cerebral edema.
Sulcal effacement.
Basilar cisterns effacement.
Requires total assistance for ADLs.
Dependent on tracheotomy and gastric tube.
5, 3
460sPedestrian struck8, 264 min, PEABilateral reactivityIntracranial hemorrhage.
Able to carry out ADLs independently.1, 6
550sMotorcycle crash6, 422 min, PEABilateral reactivityBilateral SAH.Able to walk with prosthesis.
Able to communicate.
Residual right eye vision loss.
1, 5
650sMotor vehicle collision8, 50Unknown, asystoleBilateral reactivitySAH in posterior right frontal regions.
Contusions in anterior frontal lobe.
Paraplegia but otherwise able to communicate.4, 4
750sMotor vehicle collision5, 17Unknown, unknownNon-reactive, constrictedDiffuse SAH bilaterally.
Intraventricular hemorrhage.
Non-verbal but followed commands.
Dependent on tracheotomy and gastric tube.
4, 3
820sPedestrian struck3, 34Unknown, PEABilateral reactivityRight-sided pneumocephalus.
Left frontal lobe hemorrhagic contusion.
Bilateral frontal SAH.
Able to communicate.
Regained use of arms.
Dependent on tracheotomy and gastric tube.
4, 4
  • ADLs, activities of daily living; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS-E, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; ISS, Injury Severity Score; MOI, mechanism of injury; PEA, pulseless electric activity; ROSC, return to spontaneous circulation; SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage.