Table 1

Patient characteristics and injury profile

CharacteristicTotal (n=163)TBI (n=41)Non-TBI (n=122)P value
Age (years), median41 (29–60)47 (32.5–59)40 (29–60)0.68
Male, n (%)110 (67.5)31 (75.6)79 (64.8)0.20
Race, n (%)
 Black39 (23.9)8 (19.5)31 (25.4)<0.01
 White72 (44.2)16 (39.0)56 (45.9)
 Hispanic15 (9.2)2 (4.9)13 (10.7)
 Other/unknown37 (22.7)15 (36.6)22 (18.0)
BMI, median24.8 (21.5–27.3)25 (21.8–25.8)24.7 (21.1–27.8)0.57
CrCl (mL/min), median107.4 (72.9–140.2)111.5 (101.1.–168.0)102.5 (46.4–125.4)0.06
AIS Score, median
 Head/neck0 (0–0)4 (3–4)0 (0–0)<0.01
 Face0 (0–2)0 (0–2)0 (0–2)0.28
 Chest0 (0–3)0 (0–3)0 (0–2)0.71
 Abdomen/pelvis1 (0–3)0 (0–2)1 (0–3)0.15
 Extremity0 (0–3)0 (0–3)0 (0–3)0.99
 External0 (0–1)1 (0–1)0 (0–1)0.09
ISS, median18 (11–26)26 (20.5–32)17 (10–22)<0.01
ISS without AIS head/neck, median17 (10–20)13 (5–18)17 (10–22)0.08
Mechanism of injury, n (%)
Mechanism of injury, blunt, n (%)141 (87.1)41 (100)101 (82.8)<0.01
 Automobile vs. pedestrian collision22 (13.5)4 (9.8)18 (14.8)0.07
 Motorcycle collision13 (8.0)6 (14.6)7 (5.7)
 Motor vehicle collision40 (24.5)6 (14.6)34 (27.9)
 Fall49 (30.1)17 (41.5)32 (26.2)
 Other39 (23.9)8 (19.5)31 (25.4)
Injury profile,* n (%)
 Intra-abdominal solid organ injury19 (11.7)4 (9.8)15 (12.3)0.78
 Lower extremity fracture48 (29.4)11 (26.8)37 (30.3)0.82
 Pelvic fracture36 (22.1)14 (34.1)22 (18.0)0.05
 Spine fracture43 (26.4)13 (31.7)30 (24.6)0.49
 Upper extremity fracture29 (17.8)12 (29.3)17 (13.9)0.09
Type of TBI,* n (%)
 Contusion11 (26.8)
 Epidural hematoma6 (14.6)
 Intraparenchymal hemorrhage4 (9.8)
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage18 (43.9)
 Subdural hematoma20 (48.8)
 Other1 (2.4)
  • BMI calculated as weight in kilogram divided by height in meters squared.

  • *More than one injury type, type of TBI and operative intervention were possible for each patient.

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; BMI, Body Mass Index; CrCl, creatinine clearance; ISS, Injury Severity Score; TBI, traumatic brain injury.