Table 1

Pectus excavatum

Author (year)/typeStudy locationSubjectType of cryoablationControl groupDecreased hospital LOSImproved pain scoreDecreased narcotic useIncreased operative timeIncreased complication rateGrade
Keller et al (2016)5/Retro cohortDavis, California52 (26 cryo)DirectThoracic epidural+n/a++− (>displaced bar)Low
Harbaugh et al (2018)6/Retro cohortAnn Arbor, Michigan31 (19 cryo)DirectThoracic epidural+Low
Morikawa et al (2018)7/Retro cohortHonolulu, Hawaii19 (6 cryo)DirectNo cryo++Low
Sujka et al (2018)8/Retro cohortKansas City, Missouri28 (9 cryo)DirectPCA or epidural++ (POD 0 and 2)++Low
Graves et al (2019)9/RCTSan Francisco, California20 (10 cryo)DirectThoracic epidural+++High
Pilkington et al (2020)10/Retro cohortAnn Arbor, Michigan29 (9 cryo)DirectThoracic epidural++ (POD 2)Moderate
Dekonenko et al (2020)11/Prospective cohortKansas City, Missouri100 (35 cryo)DirectEpidural, PCA++ (POD 0)++n/aModerate
Cadaval Gallardo et al (2020)12/DescriptiveSevilla, Spain21DirectNonen/an/an/an/an/aVery low
Zobel et al (2020)13/Retro cohortSan Francisco, California43DirectAdult vs. pediatricn/an/an/an/an/aLow
  • LOS, length of stay; n/a, not applicable; PCA, patient-controlled analgesia; POD, post-operative day; RCT, randomized controlled trial.