Table 1

Clinical and radiological characteristics according to ZI category

ZI <0ZI 0–3 mmZI >3P value
Age*49.8 (19.6)36.7 (12.9)49.7 (15.6)0.061
GCS†6 (3–10)5 (3–11)3 (3–4)0.031
Pupil reactivity0.257
 Both pupils62.2 (56)76.9 (10)36.4 (4)
 One pupil17.8 (16)15.4 (2)36.4 (4)
 Neither pupil11.1 (2)7.7 (1)27.3 (3)
TBI class0.874
 Mild15.6 (14)7.7 (1)1 (9.1)
 Moderate14.4 (13)15.4 (2)1 (9.1)
 Severe64.4 (58)53.8 (7)81.1 (9)
MLS, mm*6.7 (5.45)14.1 (7.8)16.7 (5.1)<0.001
HT, mm*14.1 (7.12)13.1 (7.9)10.9 (7.7)0.368
Rotterdam score†5 (3–6)5 (4.5–6)6 (6–6)0.002
Helsinki score†6 (4–9)9 (5–10)11 (9–14)0.001
Other injuries
 Fractures42.2 (38)46.2 (6)63.6 (7)0.401
 tSAH5.6 (5)100 (13)100 (11)0.498
 IVH21.1 (19)7.7 (1)45.5 (5)0.077
 ICH50 (45)46.2 (6)90.9 (10)0.032
DC81.1 (73)92.3 (12)90.9 (10)0.466
Outcome
 14-day mortality36.7 (33)30.8 (4)81.1 (9)0.012
 In-hospital mortality48.9 (44)46.2 (6)90.9 (10)0.027
  • *Mean (SD).

  • †Median (IQR); all other variables: % (number).

  • DC, decompressive craniectomy; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; HT, hematoma thickness; ICH, intracerebral hematoma; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; MLS, midline shift; TBI, traumatic brain injury; tSAH, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage; ZI, Zumkeller index.