Table 1

Study characteristics

Study characteristics (n=62)Count (%)
Year of publication
 2001–20055 (8)
 2006–201014 (23)
 2011–201516 (26)
 2016–201927 (43)
Geographic region of conduct
 USA19 (31)
 Afghanistan and Iraq11 (18)
 Afghanistan10 (16)
 Not reported4 (6)
 Israel3 (5)
 Canada2 (3)
 Iraq2 (3)
 UK2 (3)
 Afghanistan, Iraq, and Germany1 (2)
 Afghanistan, Iraq, and Oman1 (2)
 Australia1 (2)
 Germany1 (2)
 Iran1 (2)
 Japan1 (2)
 Netherlands1 (2)
 Sahel-Saharan Strip1 (2)
 Sweden1 (2)
Study design
 Cohort54 (87)
 Randomized controlled trial5 (8)
 Case–control3 (5)
Study duration (months)
 0–129 (15)
 13–247 (11)
 25–369 (15)
 37–4810 (16)
 49–606 (9)
 61–727 (11)
 73–842 (3)
 85–961 (2)
 97–1083 (5)
 109–1202 (3)
 121–2563 (5)
 NR3 (5)
Studies grouped by MARCH
 Massive hemorrhage17 (28)
 Airway7 (12)
 Respiration/breathing12 (20)
 Circulation18 (29)
 Hypothermia2 (3)
 E-FAST3 (5)
 Mixed3 (3)
Setting
 Combat zone*25 (41)
 Aeromedical support unit†12 (19)
 Level 1 trauma center‡12 (19)
 Emergency and trauma services‡13 (21)
  • *Includes land-based facilities only in combat zones.

  • †Includes combat and non-combat settings.

  • ‡Non-combat settings only.

  • E-FAST, extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma; NR, not recorded.