Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study identificationDesignAge groupSample sizeSurvivors (n)Mortality (%)Blunt traumaPenetrating traumaOther/unknown trauma type
Alanezi45 2004Prospective cohortMixed50296.04460
Barnard4 2017Retrospective cohortMixed7055392.56011040
Beck46 2016Retrospective cohortMixed1354999.3869226259
Calkins34 2002Retrospective cohortPediatric25292.02500
Capizzani35 2010Retrospective cohortPediatric30680.02109
Chia47 2017Retrospective cohortMixed15543897.6NRNR1554
Chiang etal48 2015Retrospective cohortAdult5142096.13880126
Chien49 2016Retrospective cohortAdult396997.719711188
David50 2007Retrospective cohortAdult268697.8NRNR268
Deasy51 2012Retrospective cohortMixed21872898.7NRNR2187
Di Bartolomeo19 2005Retrospective cohortAdult181289.018100
Djarv52 2018Retrospective cohortMixed17746596.3NRNR1774
Duchateau53 2017Retrospective cohortAdult881088.677110
Evans5 2016Retrospective cohortMixed230014592.71547736270
Falcone54 1995Retrospective cohortAdult320698.1285360
Fisher 55 1999Retrospective cohortPediatric65198.56500
Graesner56 2011Retrospective cohortMixed81422172.959752165
Hillman57 2016Retrospective cohortPediatric27485.24716
Huber-Wagner58 2007Retrospective cohortMixed75713082.8714430
Keller37 2013Retrospective cohortMixed4483791.7NRNRNR
Kleber23 2014Prospective cohortMixed711579.9401219
Lawhon20 1995Retrospective cohortMixed47295.7NRNR47
Lin59 2016Retrospective cohortPediatric3883891.2365230
Love60 2016Retrospective cohortMixed237797.0165720
Lundy61 2011Retrospective cohortMixed30912559.5NRNR309
Molina62 2008Retrospective cohortMixed94891.50940
Mollberg63 2011Retrospective cohortAdult294199.7902040
Moore44 2011Prospective cohortMixedNR56NR551NR
Moore64 2016Prospective cohortAdult170810693.88208880
Murphy65 2010Retrospective cohortPediatric1692883.4151711
Perron66 2001Retrospective cohortPediatric72918474.850581143
Pickens67 2005Retrospective cohortMixed1841492.490940
Powell68 2004Retrospective cohortMixed9596293.51151897
Rabinovici69 2014Retrospective cohortMixed67986.617500
Shimazu70 1983Retrospective cohortMixed267797.4217500
Stratton71 1998Retrospective cohortMixed879999.93824970
Tarmey43 2011Prospective cohortAdult52492.301735
Vassallo72 2019Retrospective cohortPediatric129794.6110190
Zwingmann73 2015Retrospective cohortPediatric1524371.714570
Zwingmann21 2016Retrospective cohortMixed305264978.7NRNR3052
  • NR, not reported.