Table 1

Causes of syncope

Pathophysiological originCauses
Reflex syncopeVasovagal
Carotid sinus syndrome
Non-classical forms
Cardiac syncopeWith obstructive structural heart disease:
Aortic stenosis
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Cardiac masses
Pericardial disease/tamponade
Prosthetic valvular dysfunction
Congenital coronary artery abnormalities
With arrhythmia:
Cardiopulmonary and great vessels:
Pulmonary embolism
Aortic dissection
Pulmonary hypertension
Orthostatic hypotensionMedication induced
Volume depletion
Primary autonomic failure
Secondary autonomic failure
  • The categorizations and causes of syncope, modified from the European Society of Cardiology.32